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TriBraze is a quenched and tempered, thru-hardened, high impact resistant, superior abrasion resistant alloy steel with very low sulfur content (less than 0.003%).

It is specially treated for sulfide shape control which improves internal cleanliness, notch toughness, torching and formability characteristics, and weldability.

The engineered balance of alloying elements provide maximum strength and ductility while the controlled heat treating and extremely low sulfur develop an ideal hardness/toughness ratio.

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Advantages & Features

  • Balanced alloy steel chemistry for optimum hardness/toughness ratio.
  • High hardness for better wear resistance (through-hardened).
  • High impact resistance.
  • Excellent hardenability for depth of hardness.
  • Provides longer service life and less downtime to lower your overall maintenance cost.
  • Fine grain structure.
  • Extremely low sulfur content & sulfide shape control.
  • Tempered martensitic microstructure with titanium carbo-nitride particles to improve resistance to wear.

Applications

A partial list of typical TriBraze applications:

  • Bark Hammers
  • Bins & Hoppers
  • Blades
  • Blast Furnace Handling Equipment
  • Blow Tank Target Plates
  • Buckets & Components
  • Bucket Lips
  • Chipper Hoods & Components
  • Chip Solo Components
  • Chutes
  • Conveyors & Liners
  • Crusher Components
  • Cyclones
  • Debarking Drum Components
  • Drums & Sprockets
  • Dust Collector Systems
  • Fan Blades & Housings
  • Flatback Elbows
  • Flights
  • Flume Liners
  • Hammers
  • Hammer Mill Side Plates
  • Heel Plates
  • Hooks
  • Hot & Cold Strip Mill Guides
  • Impact Ladders
  • Jack Ladder Components
  • Kickout Arms
  • Lift Forks
  • Liner Plates
  • Log Decks
  • Mine Cars & Equipment
  • Pins
  • Pipe Mill Easy Down Assemblies
  • Sand Systems
  • Scrap Handling Equipment
  • Scraper Blades
  • Screens
  • Shakeout Machines
  • Shot Blast Equipment
  • Skip Cars
  • Speed-up Rolls
  • Sprockets
  • Truck Body Liners
  • Washers
  • Wear Plates


Chemical Composition

The specially designed Carbon content allows TriBraze to be heat treated to a high hardness while still remaining readily weldable.

The low Manganese content enhances the hardness and hardenability of the steel while promoting the ductility.

The ultra-low Phosphorous and Sulfur content make for a very clean steel and greatly enhance the toughness. Because Tri-Braze is specially treated for sulfide shape control, any sulfide or oxide inclusions inherent in the steel will be limited, microscopically small, and globular in shape. This in turn means a more homogeneous material with more uniform properties in the longitudinal, transverse and thru-thickness directions.

The Silicon content provides adequate deoxidation and assures a fully killed steel.

Chromium and Molybdenum promote hardenability (the depth of hardness), enhance the atmospheric corrosion resistance, and increase high temperature properties.

The Nickel addition adds to the strength and toughness but is used sparingly in order to reduce the difficulties of rolled in scale thereby producing a smoother plate surface.

Titanium benefits the Boron by combining with nitrogen, allowing the Boron addition to be effective. Boron is used to intensify the hardenability. A very small amount of Boron is required for a marked increase in the hardenability. Boron treated steels generally possess better hot and cold working characteristics than other alloy steels having equal or higher hardenability.

It also promotes grain refinement, imparts temper resistance, and forms a very hard complex Titanium Carbo-Nitride for better wear resistance. The Aluminum acts as a deoxidizer and for control of inherent grain size.

Microstructure

The TriBraze microstructure of  consists mainly of tempered martensite.

An etched photomicrograph shows the presence of the Titanium Carbo-Nitrides. These small Titanium Carbo-Nitrides are randomly dispersed throughout the martensitic matrix and are extremely hard and improve the abrasion resistance of the steel.

Due to the virtual elimination of most nonmetallic inclusions, the initiation sites for crack propagation along the torched edge and/or in the heat affected zone, are also eliminated. This in turn enhances the torching characteristics and the weldability of Tri-Braze, due to the virtual elimination of most non-metallic inclusions, the initiation sites for crack propagation along the torched edge, and/or in the heat affected zone, are also eliminated.

Each heat of TriBraze is specially processed using state-of-the-art desulfurizing techniques to obtain very low sulfur contents and to achieve “sulfide shape control”. Through this process any sulfide inclusions remaining in the steel are modified so that they resist deformation during hot working and remain virtually globular or spherical in nature.

In this form, inclusions have much less effect on the steel’s ductility and the directional characteristics are substantially reduced. The elimination of sulfide stringers removes a source of commonly known weak points at which many types of steel failures originate.

Through this special processing, TriBraze has enhanced quality and greatly improved properties. Some of the benefits are noted below:

  1. Internal Cleanliness: The internal cleanliness is greatly improved through virtual elimination of most inclusions. Tri-Braze will meet the most restrictive ASTM Ultrasonic Testing Specification (ASTM A578-82 Level 1) for internal cleanliness.
  2. Notch Toughness: Charpy V-Notch impact values are higher than when conventional processing practices are used. While both the longitudinal and transverse impact energies are higher, it is the transverse values which show the greatest improvement. The transverse energy levels approach those in the longitudinal direction of a non-desulfurized heat.
  3. Formability: In conventionally processed steels a much larger minimum bend radii is needed when the bend axis is parallel to the plate length (transverse bend) than when the bend axis is perpendicular to the plate length (longitudinal bend). In many cases, these so called “hard way” bends were avoided due to possible breakage. Through sulfide shape control processing’ “hard way” bends are no longer the hard way. Bends can be made in either direction with equal ease. As a general rule, minimum bend radii recommended for longitudinal bends in conventionally treated steels can be used for transverse bends in desulfurized steels.

Machining TriBraze

TribrazeDrilling TriBraze:

  • Machine, work set-up and tooling should be as rigid as possible.
  • Tooling should be cobalt or carbide and kept sharp
  • Drills with short shanks are preferred for torsional stiffness
  • Tooling should be flooded with a good grade of coolant.
  • Satisfactory drilling results have been obtained using:
    • A split point drill with an included tip angle of 150° and an edge clearance of 6°
    • Feed rate of .001” / .004” per revolution for drills 1/8” thru 1”; and .004” / .010” per revolution for drills 1-1/32” and larger.
    • Speeds of 10 / 20 SFPM.

For Tapping Holes in TriBraze:

  • Layout all hole locations on the TriBraze plate
  • Prior to drilling the pilot hole, use an oxy-fuel torch to heat the location, achieving an orange glow in the TriBraze ®. This slightly anneals the steel in this location, allowing the holes to be tapped. Because the hole will have a fastener, does not alter the performance of the TriBraze. Repeat for each hole to be tapped.
  • Drill pilot hole after it has cooled to less than 100° F
  • We have found the best success tapping TriBraze using a high quality tap.
  • For Turning & Milling TriBraze
  • Use C-5 or C-6 Carbide
  • 50/100 SFPM
  • .001” / .003” Chip Load
  • Flood with a good grade of coolant.

Cold Forming TriBraze

Moderate forming can be satisfactorily performed in all thicknesses, provided adequate power is available and proper procedures are used.

Generally, the power required to form TriBraze will be approximately 4 times that required for carbon steel, or 40% more than forming AR 400.

The following will assist you in cold forming TriBraze

Flame cut and rough edges should be snagged with a grinder in the bend area.

Use the largest radii permissible. (8 times the plate thickness is generally the minimum radius with bend lines perpendicular to final rolling direction of plate.)

If bend lines must be parallel to the final rolling direction (grain direction), the bend radius must increased (each TriBraze ® plate is marked with the grain direction).

Spring-back allowances must be considered and will depend on plate thickness and severity of the bend.

For the purpose of estimating forming equipment required to form TriBraze ®, the tensile strength may be estimated by multiplying the BHN value by 500.

Lower hardness TriBraze can be furnished for more severe forming requirements with a slight decrease in wear resistant properties.

Cutting TriBraze

Using a plasma torch for cutting is the recommended method for shape cutting and beveling TriBraze. Conventional flame cutting procedures and fuels are satisfactory for piercing holes, but will anneal or soften the area you are cutting more than plasma will.

Some hardening of the cut edges may result when the heated cut surface is drastically quenched by the larger mass of surrounding cold base metal. If machining is required on torch cut material, either allow sufficient stock removal to get below the hardened edge or preheat to approximately 400°F prior to flame cutting.

As an added precaution, plates stored below 50°F, and plates in excess of 1-1/2″ in thickness should be preheated to approximately 200°F.

Welding TriBraze

The first consideration for welding TriBraze is using the correct welding alloy. Unlike welding AR400 or AR500, many of which specify 7018 for welding, TriBraze has higher concentrations of Chromium, Nickel and Molybdenum. Standard 7018 does not contain enough or any alloys to work with this true alloy steel.

We recommend welding TriBraze with TriWeld 3  stick or TriWeld-FCG  wire to assure successful welds.

The amount of heat introduced into the weld can have drastic effects on the joint strength and wear plate hardness.

Large heat inputs result in wide heat affected zones that are low in hardness and impact properties. Narrow heat affected zones are kept low by using small beads and multiple passes.

Stringer passes should be made on alternating sides to help control distortion. Weave beads should avoided. If it is absolutely necessary to use weave beads, the deposit width should be limited to three (3) times the electrode diameter or five (5) times the diameter for wire.

The final weld passes should be uniform in shape and contour. The beads should taper smoothly into the base plate,  and undercutting should not be allowed.

Any and all visible weld imperfections should be removed before successive weld passes are made.

Post Weld:

The completed weldment should be allowed to slow cool to ambient temperature.

Post weld thermal treatment is generally not necessary, but is suggested when the welded component is subject to extreme load conditions. When deemed necessary, the welded component can be stress relieved by heating to 400°F and holding for one-half to one hour per inch of thickness of the plate. The cooling should be done in still air.

Post Weld Inspection – rough, irregular shaped welds should be ground smooth to remove stress risers that could be sites for crack initiation. Ensure freedom from cracks, gouges, laps, undercut or other imperfections. Visual examination, preferably 48-72 hours after welding, should be made to ensure freedom from cracks, gouges, laps, undercuts or other imperfections.

Avoid these pitfalls when welding TriBraze:

1. Hydrogen Cracking
Whenever high strength steels are welded, there is always a danger of cracking due to the presence of moisture. Care should be taken to assure that electrodes and base metal surface are free from moisture. To avoid under-bead cracking, the hydrogen content of the weld should be kept to a minimum.

Common sources of hydrogen are: (a) water and heavy rust on plate; (b) manual shielding arc electrode cuttings; (c) submerged arc welding flux that has been improperly stored; (d) contamination on surface of coiled electrode core wires.
» If hydrogen embrittlement is suspect, it is always good practice to heat soak the completed weld at 250°F, per hour per inch of thickness.

2. Undercutting
Undercutting is simply a joint that has not been properly filled. The base material is melted, mixed with the filler metal and solidified as a weld bead. It is usually characterized by high crown.

Undercutting is probably the most common of all welding defects. There are many causes but the most common is excess travel speed…quite simply, there is not enough weld metal to fill the joint.

The Answer to your wear resistent steel challenges